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sexta-feira, 8 de junho de 2007

Adverbs of frequency

Adverbs of frequency
I never work on weekends. I sometimes think about work on weekends. My friends and I usually go out for drinks on Friday nights. I always have dinner with my family on Sunday evenings.
To talk about how often something happens use adverbs of frequency: always, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, never.
This chart will help you understand the meaning of the adverbs of frequency. These meanings are subjective and not exact. The percentages will give you a general idea of their meaning.
Adverb Frequency always 100% usually 75-99% often 60-75% sometimes 10-40% rarely 1-10% never 0%
When the verb is to be, use: to be + adverb of frequency.
>> Claire is often tired.
>> Nicholas is usually very busy.
>> Warren is always nervous.
With all verbs except to be, we use: adverb of frequency + verb.
>> Claire usually eats lunch at work.
>> Martin never smokes.
>> Nicholas rarely eats fish.

ADVERBS: Adverbs of Frequency
Usado para falar sobre o quã frequentemente ou o quão raramente algo acontece. Os advérbios de frequencia mais importantes são: ALWAYS, GENERALLY, NORMALLY, USUALLY, FREQUENTLY, OFTEN, SOMETIMES, EVER, OCCASIONALLY, SELDOM, RARELY and NEVER. FORMA: Advérbios de frequencia normalmente aparecem imediatamente antes do verbo em sentenças afirmativas, mas depois do verbo "BE". Em sentenças negativas, os advérbios de frequencia normalmente aparecem imediatamente após a palavra NOT. Em perguntas, os advérbios de frequencia normalmente aparecem imediatamente após os sujeito.
AFFIRMATIVE
[Advérbios + Verbo]» I always drink champane with my supper.
[Be + Advérbio]» Peter is sometimes late for lessons.
NEGATIVE
[NOT + Advérbio]» We don't often go to the theater» My sister isn't usually so quiet.
QUESTIONS
[Sujeito + Advérbio]» What do you usually have for breakfast?» Do you always eat a sandwich for lunch?» Are you ever going to finish that book?

Adverbs of Frequency100% always usually frequently often 50% sometimes occasionally rarely seldom hardly ever 0% never Adverbs of Frequency answer the question "How often?" or "How frequently?" They tell us how often somebody does something.
Adverbs of frequency come before the main verb (except the main verb "to be"):
We usually go shopping on Saturday. I have often done that. She is always late. Occasionally, sometimes, often, frequently and usually can also go at the beginning or end of a sentence:
Sometimes they come and stay with us. I play tennis occasionally. Rarely and seldom can also go at the end of a sentence (often with "very"):
We see them rarely. John eats meat very seldom. Now check your understanding »

Exercise 1Look at Claire's schedule for a typical week at the lab. Choose the word that best completes the sentence. TIME Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 9:00 Lab 1 Lab 1 Lab 1 Lab 1 Lab 1 10:00 Front desk Front desk Front desk Front desk Front desk 11:00 Meeting 12:00 1:00 Lunch at work Lunch at work Lunch at work Lunch out Lunch at work 2:00 Meeting Meeting 3:00 Meeting Meeting
Claire is / at work on Saturdays.
Claire / has meetings in the afternoon.
Claire / has meetings in the morning.
She / has lunch at work.
She is / in the lab at 9:00.
She / has lunch out of the office.
Claire is / at lunch at 10:00.
Students can now talk about their daily habits. Introducing adverbs of frequency can help give them further expressive capabilities by allowing them to speak about how often they perform daily tasks.
Write these adverbs of frequency on the board next to a list of the days of the week. For example:
Always - Monday / Tuesday / Wednesday / Thursday / Friday / Saturday / Sunday Usually - Monday / Tuesday / Wednesday / Thursday / Friday / Saturday Often - Monday / Tuesday / Thursday / Sunday Sometimes - Monday / Thursday Seldom - Saturday Never This list will help students associate the adverbs of frequency with the concept of relative repetition or frequency.
Teacher: I always have breakfast. I usually get up at 7 o'clock. I often watch television.
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Teaching EnglishFind exactly what you want on Teaching EnglishResourceXpress.net/TeachingI sometimes exercise. I seldom go shopping. I never cook fish. (Model each adverb of frequency by pointing to it on the board while slowly saying the phrases allowing students to take in the regularity associated with the adverb of frequency being used. Make sure to accent the various adverbs of frequency.)Teacher: Ken, how often do you come to class? I always come to class. How often do you watch TV? I sometimes watch TV. (Model 'how often' and the adverb of frequency by accenting 'how often' in the question and the adverb of frequency in the response.)
Teacher: Paolo, how often do you come to class?
Student(s): I always come to class.
Teacher: Susan, how often do you watch TV?
Student(s): I sometimes watch TV.
Continue this exercise around the room with each of the students. Use very simple verbs that the students have already become used to using when talking about their daily routines so that they can focus on learning the adverbs of frequency. Pay special attention to the placement of the adverb of frequency. If a student makes a mistake, touch your ear to signal that the student should listen and then repeat his/her answer accenting what the student should have said.
Part II: Expanding to third person singular
Teacher: Paolo, how often do you eat lunch?
Student(s): I usually eat lunch.
Teacher: Susan, does he usually eat lunch?
Student(s): Yes, he usually eats lunch. (pay special attention to the 's' ending on the third person singular)
Teacher: Susan, do you usually get up at ten o'clock?
Student(s): No, I never get up at ten o'clock.
Teacher: Olaf, does she usually get up at ten o'clock?
Student(s): No, she never gets up at ten o'clock.
etc.
Continue this exercise around the room with each of the students. Use very simple verbs that the students have already become used to using when talking about their daily routines so that they can focus on learning the adverbs of frequency. Pay special attention to the placement of the adverb of frequency and the correct usage of the third person singular. If a student makes a mistake, touch your ear to signal that the student should listen and then repeat his/her answer accenting what the student should have said.


ADVERBS: POSITION IN A SENTENCE
Words which are used to modify verbs or adjectives are usually referred to as adverbs. For instance, the adverbs in the following sentences are printed in bold type, and the words they modify are underlined.e.g. I often visit the library. It is surprisingly hot today.In the first example, the adverb often modifies the verb visit. In the second example, the adverb surprisingly modifies the adjective hot.
Words which are used to modify adverbs can also be referred to as adverbs.e.g. The train travels very quickly.In this example, the adverb very modifies the adverb quickly.

1. Adverbs which modify adjectives and other adverbs
Adverbs which modify adjectives or other adverbs usually immediately precede the words they modify.e.g. The package is extremely large. We experienced relatively few difficulties. Buses depart quite regularly.In these examples, the underlined adverbs immediately precede the words they modify. Extremely modifies the adjective large, relatively modifies the adjective few, and quite modifies the adverb regularly.
The adverbs ago and enough are exceptional, since they usually follow the adjectives or adverbs they modify.e.g. That happened long ago. He is old enough to make his own decisions. We ran fast enough to catch the bus.In these examples, the adverbs ago and enough follow the words they modify. Ago modifies the adverb long, and enough modifies the adjective old and the adverb fast.
It should be noted that in modern English, when enough is used as an adjective modifying a noun, it precedes the noun. For instance, in the following example, the adjective enough precedes the noun apples.e.g. Do we have enough apples to make a pie?
However, when ago is used with a noun, it follows the noun. For instance, in the following example, ago follows the noun months.e.g. That happened six months ago.The reason for this may be found in the history of the word. Ago, formerly spelled agone, was originally a past participle.
a. IntensifiersAn adverb which is used to modify adjectives and adverbs, but which is not usually used to modify verbs, can be referred to as an intensifier. In the following examples, the intensifiers are printed in bold type.e.g. I am very happy. The film was quite good. You did that rather well. Must you leave so soon?In these examples, very modifies the adjective happy, quite modifies the adjective good, rather modifies the adverb well, and so modifies the adverb soon.
The following words are commonly used as intensifiers:
fairly quite rather so too very
In addition, the word really is often used as an intensifier in informal English.e.g. The film was really good. You did that really well.
2. Adverbs which modify verbs
The following table gives examples of six different types of adverb which can be used to modify verbs.
Adverbs of Adverbs of Adverbs of Adverbs of Connecting Negative Frequency Manner Location Time Adverbs Adverbs always carefully ahead again also barely ever correctly back early consequently hardly frequently eagerly forward late furthermore little generally easily here now hence never never fast high sometime however not often loudly low then moreover nowhere rarely patiently near today nevertheless rarely seldom quickly outside tomorrow otherwise scarcely sometimes quietly somewhere tonight therefore seldom usually well there yesterday thus
a. Adverbs of frequencyAdverbs of frequency answer the question How often?
An adverb which modifies a verb may occupy one of three main positions in a clause. These positions may be referred to as the beginning position, the middle position, and the end position. Adverbs of frequency may occupy any of these positions. In the following examples, the adverbs of frequency are printed in bold type.
An adverb in the beginning position is located at the beginning of a clause. For example: Often the wind blows less strongly at night.In this example, the adverb of frequency often is located at the beginning of the clause.
Most adverbs can occupy the beginning position in a clause. The use of this position tends to emphasize the adverb.
An adverb in the end position occurs after an intransitive verb, or after the direct object of a transitive verb.e.g. He speaks seldom. I visit her frequently.In the first example, seldom follows the intransitive verb speaks. In the second example, frequently follows the direct object her of the transitive verb visit.
Usually only one adverb at a time can occupy the beginning position or the middle position in a clause. However, more than one adverb at a time can occupy the end position in a clause.
When more than one adverb occurs in the end position, the different types of adverb are usually placed in a certain order. For instance, in the end position, adverbs of frequency usually follow adverbs of manner and adverbs of location, and precede adverbs of time and adverbs of purpose.
Adverbs of frequency which consist of single words most often occupy the middle position of a clause. The location of adverbs in the middle position varies depending on the type of verb used. Adverbs in the middle position occupy the locations indicated below:
1) They follow the Simple Present and Simple Past of the verb to be. 2) They precede the Simple Present and Simple Past of verbs other than the verb to be. 3) They follow the first auxiliary, in tenses which have auxiliaries. 4) They precede the first auxiliary, or the Simple Present or Simple Past of the verb to be, in short answers.
The following examples illustrate the use of adverbs of frequency in the middle position of a clause. The relevant verbs are underlined. 1) We are always on time. 2) He rarely makes a mistake. 3) I have often wondered about that. 4) Have you seen this movie before? No, I never have.In the preceding examples, always follows are, the Simple Present of the verb to be; rarely precedes makes, the Simple Present of a verb other than the verb to be; often follows the first auxiliary have of the verb have wondered; and never precedes the auxiliary have in the short answer I never have.
See Exercise 1.
In negative statements, and negative questions with not, adverbs in the middle position of a clause usually follow the word not.e.g. Negative Statement: They do not often miss the bus. Question with Not: Does he not usually know the answers?In these examples, the adverbs often and usually follow the word not.
In affirmative questions, and negative questions with n't, adverbs in the middle position of a clause usually follow the subject of the clause. In the following examples, the subjects are underlined.e.g. Affirmative Question: Is it always this cold in February? Question with n't: Doesn't he usually know the answers?In the first example, the adverb always follows the subject it. In the second example, the adverb usually follows the subject he.
It should be noted that the adverbs daily, weekly, monthly, yearly and annually usually do not occupy the middle position of a clause.
See Exercise 2.
Verbs may be modified not only by single-word adverbs, but also by adverb phrases and clauses. Like adverbs of frequency, adverb phrases and clauses of frequency answer the question How often?
Adverb phrases and clauses of frequency usually occupy either the beginning or end position of a clause.e.g. Once in a while, I like to try something new. We visited the museum as often as we could.In the first example, the adverb phrase of frequency once in a while occupies the beginning position of the clause I like to try something new. In the second example, the adverb clause of frequency as often as we could occupies the end position of the clause We visited the museum.
It should be noted that except in the case of commonly used adverbs such as now, then , today, tomorrow, sometimes, usually, maybe and perhaps, adverbs and adverb phrases at the beginning of a clause must usually be followed by commas. In the following examples, the commas are underlined.e.g. Unfortunately, it began to rain. As often as possible, we went outside for a walk.
b. Adverbs of timeAdverbs of time answer the question When?
Adverbs of time usually occupy either the beginning position or the end position of a clause. In the following examples, the adverbs of time are printed in bold type.e.g. Today I will go to the library. I will go to the post office tomorrow.In the first example, today occupies the beginning position of a clause. In the second example, tomorrow occupies the end position of a clause.
In the end position, adverbs of time usually follow adverbs of manner and adverbs of location.
With a few exceptions, such as now, then and once, most adverbs of time may not occupy the middle position of a clause.
The adverbs now, then and once may occupy any of the three positions in a clause. For instance, in the following examples, now occupies the first position, the middle position, and the end position of a clause.e.g. Now it is time to leave. It is now time to leave. It is time to leave now.
It should be noted that sometimes is an adverb of frequency, whereas sometime is an adverb of time.e.g. I sometimes see him in the park. I would like to read that book sometime.In the first example, the adverb of frequency sometimes occupies the middle position of a clause. In the second example, the adverb of time sometime occupies the end position of a clause.
Adverb phrases and clauses of time usually occupy either the beginning or end position of a clause.e.g. At nine o'clock, the train will leave. I will call you when I am ready.In the first example, the adverb phrase at nine o'clock occupies the beginning position of the clause the train will leave. In the second example, the adverb clause when I am ready occupies the end position of the clause I will call you.
c. Adverbs of mannerAdverbs of manner answer the question How? Many adverbs of manner have the ending ly. The formation and use of adverbs of manner will be discussed in more detail in the next chapter.
Adverbs of manner most often occupy the end position of a clause, where they follow an intransitive verb, or the direct object of a transitive verb.e.g. We waited patiently for the play to begin. I sold the strawberries quickly.In the first example, the adverb of manner patiently follows the intransitive verb waited. In the second example, the adverb of manner quickly follows the direct object strawberries of the transitive verb sold.
An adverb of manner may be placed at the beginning of a clause, in order to emphasize the idea expressed by the adverb.e.g. Patiently, we waited for the show to begin. Quickly, I sold the strawberries.In these examples, the ideas expressed by patiently and quickly are emphasized.
Adverbs of manner are often placed in the middle position of a clause, particularly when the clause contains no adverb of frequency.e.g. I slowly opened the door. I have carefully considered all of the possibilities.In the first example, the adverb of manner slowly precedes opened, a verb in the Simple Past. In the second example, the adverb of manner carefully follows the auxiliary have of the verb have considered.
In informal English, adverbs of manner are often placed immediately after the word to of an infinitive. When this is done, the infinitive is referred to as a split infinitive.e.g. I wanted to carefully consider the situation.In this example, the infinitive to consider is split by the adverb carefully.
However, in formal English, it is considered preferable not to use split infinitives. In formal English, the above example could be written: I wanted to consider the situation carefully.
Adverb phrases and clauses of manner usually occupy the end position of a clause.e.g. We arrived on foot. We finished the work as quickly as we could.In the first example, the adverb phrase of manner on foot follows the intransitive verb arrived. In the second example, the adverb clause of manner as quickly as we could follows the direct object work of the transitive verb finished.
Adverb phrases and clauses of manner are sometimes placed at the beginning of a clause, for emphasis. For example: As quickly as we could, we finished the work.In this example, the adverb clause as quickly as we could is emphasized.
d. Connecting adverbsAdverbs such as however, nevertheless and therefore are often used to connect the ideas expressed by the clauses in which they occur to ideas expressed in previous clauses. In the following examples, the connecting adverbs are printed in bold type.
Connecting adverbs are often placed at the beginning of a clause. e.g. I would like to go skiing. However, I have too much work to do. She was very busy; nevertheless, she found time to go swimming.
In the first example, the adverb however, which occurs at the beginning of the clause I have too much work to do, connects the idea expressed in this clause with the idea expressed in the previous clause, I would like to go skiing. In the second example, the adverb nevertheless, which occurs at the beginning of the clause she found time to go swimming, connects the idea expressed in this clause with the idea expressed in the previous clause, she was very busy.
Many connecting adverbs may be placed in the middle position of a clause. This is often done when the clause contains no adverb of frequency. e.g. I am, nevertheless, anxious to continue. We thus had no difficulty finding the motel. We have, therefore, decided to do it.
In the first example, nevertheless follows am, the Simple Present of the verb to be. In the second example, thus precedes had, the Simple Past of a verb other than the verb to be. In the third example, therefore follows the auxiliary have of the verb have decided.
The adverb however may occupy any of the three positions in a clause. As illustrated in the following examples, a connecting adverb is usually separated by commas from the rest of the sentence.e.g. However, it has stopped snowing. It has, however, stopped snowing. It has stopped snowing, however.
It should be noted that the adverb instead is often placed at the end of a clause.e.g. Because there was no meat, I bought fish instead.
Connecting adverb phrases are most often placed at the beginning of a clause. For example: As a result, I decided to study hard.In this example, the phrase as a result is placed at the beginning of the clause I decided to study hard.
The following table summarizes the most commonly used positions for the four different types of adverb discussed above.
Type of Adverb Most commonly used Position in Clause Adverb of frequency Middle position Adverb of time End position, following adverbs of manner and location Adverb of manner End position, preceding other adverbs Connecting adverb Beginning position
See Exercise 3.
e. Adverb phrases and clauses of purposeAdverb phrases and clauses of purpose answer the question Why? This question is usually answered by a phrase or clause, rather than by a single-word adverb. In the following examples, the adverb phrases and clauses of purpose are underlined.
Adverb phrases and clauses of purpose usually occupy the end position of a clause, and follow any other adverbs, or adverb phrases or clauses.e.g. I went to the store yesterday to buy a coat. I need to buy a new coat soon because my old one is worn out.In the first example, the adverb phrase of purpose to buy a coat occupies the end position of a clause, following the adverb of time yesterday. In the second example, the adverb clause of purpose because my old one is worn out occupies the end position of a clause, following the adverb of time soon.
Adverb phrases or clauses of purpose are sometimes placed at the beginning of a clause, for emphasis.e.g. To reach the airport on time, we had to complete the trip in two hours. Because it was such a beautiful day, I decided to go for a walk.
In the first example, the adverb phrase of purpose to reach the airport on time is placed at the beginning of the clause we had to complete the trip in two hours. In the second example, the adverb clause because it was such a beautiful day is placed at the beginning of the clause I decided to go for a walk.
f. Adverbs of locationAdverbs of location answer the question Where?
Adverbs of location, and adverb phrases and clauses of location, most often occupy the end position of a clause, where they precede adverbs of time and adverbs of purpose. In the following examples, the adverbs and adverb phrases and clauses of location are underlined.e.g. I am going there tomorrow. He left his bicycle in the driveway last night. I know the office where she works.
In the first example, the adverb of location there follows the verb am going, and precedes the adverb of time tomorrow. In the second example, the adverb phrase of location in the driveway follows the object bicycle of the verb left, and precedes the adverb phrase of time last night. In the third example, the adverb clause of location where she works follows the object office of the verb know.
It should be noted that the position of adverbs and adverb phrases and clauses of location relative to other types of adverb is affected by whether or not the verb being modified is a verb of motion.
A verb of motion is a verb which describes some type of movement. The verbs come, go, arrive, leave, walk, run and fly are examples of verbs of motion.
If the verb of a clause is not a verb of motion, the most usual order of the different types of adverb in the end position of a clause is as follows:
Adverb of Manner Adverb of Location Adverb of Time Adverb of Purpose
The following example illustrates this order:
We waited patiently outside the theater all afternoon to buy tickets. Type of Phrase: Manner Location Time Purpose
See Exercise 4.
The order may be varied if it is desired to emphasize one of the adverb phrases. For instance, the adverb phrase of time all afternoon could be given more emphasis by placing it immediately after the adverb patiently, as follows: We waited patiently all afternoon outside the theater to buy tickets.
When the verb of a clause is a verb of motion, any adverb of location, or adverb phrase or clause of location, is usually placed immediately after the verb. The following table compares the position of adverbs following verbs of motion with the position of adverbs following other verbs.
The most usual Position of Adverbs following a Verb
Order of Adverbs following Order of Adverbs following a Verb a Verb of Motion which is not a Verb of Motion Adverb of Location Adverb of Manner Adverb of Manner Adverb of Location Adverb of Time Adverb of Time Adverb of Purpose Adverb of Purpose
It can be seen that the order of the adverbs following the two types of verb is the same except for the relative order of the adverb of location and the adverb of manner.
The following example illustrates the most usual order of the four different types of adverb phrase following a verb of motion:
I will go to the library by bus tomorrow to return the book. Type of Phrase: Location Manner Time Purpose
See Exercise 5.Adverbs and adverb phrases and clauses of location are sometimes placed at the beginning of a clause, for emphasis.e.g. Here, the glacier deposited soil and rocks. On the way to school, she saw a robin building its nest. Wherever I look, I see signs of spring.In these examples, the adverb here, the adverb phrase on the way to school and the adverb clause wherever I look are each placed at the beginning of a clause.
Adverbs of location usually cannot be placed in the middle position of a clause.
i. Here and ThereThe words here and there, indicating location, are often used at the beginning of a clause, followed by the verb to be.
In this construction, if the subject of the verb is a noun, the subject follows the verb.e.g. Here are the tickets. There was our bus.In these examples, the noun subjects tickets and bus follow the verbs are and was.
However, if the subject of the verb is a personal pronoun, the subject precedes the verb.e.g. Here they are. There it was.In these examples, the personal pronoun subjects they and it precede the verbs are and was.
When the subject follows the verb, care must be taken to make sure that the verb agrees with its subject.e.g. Here is one of the examples. There are his aunt and uncle.In the first example, the verb is is singular to agree with the singular subject one. In the second example, the verb are is plural to agree with the plural subject his aunt and uncle.
See Exercise 6.
ii. There used as an introductory wordIn addition to being used to indicate location, there can also be used as an introductory word, in clauses indicating the existence of something. There as an introductory word is often used with verbs such as to be, to appear and to seem. In the following examples, the verbs are underlined.e.g. There is a public holiday on Monday. There are three universities in the city. There seem to be two possible answers to this question.
In affirmative statements using this construction, the subject follows the verb. In the following examples, the subjects are underlined.e.g. There are only twenty-four hours in a day. There seems to be a message for you.In the first example, the verb are is plural, to agree with the plural subject hours. In the second example, the verb seems is singular, to agree with the singular subject message.
In questions using this construction, there follows the verb in the case of the Simple Present or Simple Past of the verb to be; otherwise, there follows the first auxiliary. In the case of the Simple Present and Simple Past of verbs other than the verb to be, the auxiliary to do must be used. In the following examples, the verbs are underlined.e.g. Is there a post office near here? Were there many people on the train? Can there be any doubt about it? Do there seem to be any maple trees in this forest?In the first two examples, there follows is and were, the Simple Present and Simple Past of the verb to be. In the last two examples, there follows the first auxiliaries can and do.
iii. Inverted word orderWhen used with a verb of motion, an adverb or adverb phrase of location may be placed at the beginning of a clause, followed immediately by the verb, followed by the noun subject of the verb. This construction is summarized below, followed by examples.
adverb phrase verb of noun of location + motion + subject Up the hill trundled the train. Here come our friends.
If the subject of the verb is a personal pronoun, the subject must precede the verb, as illustrated below:
adverb phrase pronoun verb of of location + subject + motion Up the hill it trundled. Here they come.
See Exercise 7.
g. Negative adverbsNegative adverbs include adverbs with an explicit negative meaning, such as never, not and nowhere, as well as adverbs with an implied negative meaning, such as hardly, scarcely and seldom.
i. Double negativesIn modern English, there is a rule that a clause containing one negative word expresses a negative meaning, but a clause containing two negative words expressed an affirmative meaning. In the case of a clause with two negative words, it is considered that one of these words negates the other, so that an affirmative meaning results. The presence of two negative words in a clause is referred to as a double negative.
In some dialects of English, clauses containing two negative words may be used to express a negative meaning.e.g. I'm not saying nothing about it. He never told nobody the secret.However, this use of the double negative is considered to be grammatically incorrect in standard English.
For each of the above examples, the double negative can be eliminated by omitting or altering one of the negative words. Thus, the meaning of the first example could be correctly expressed by either of the following sentences: I'm saying nothing about it. or I'm not saying anything about it.
Similarly, the meaning of the second example could be correctly expressed by either of the following sentences: He told nobody the secret. or He never told anybody the secret.
See Exercise 8.
ii. Inverted word orderIf a clause begins with a negative adverb, inverted word order must usually be used, with the subject following the Simple Present or Simple Past of the verb to be, or the first auxiliary. In the case of the Simple Present or Simple Past of any verb other than the verb to be, the auxiliary to do must be used. This construction is summarized below, followed by examples.
Simple form of negative adverb + verb to be or + subject or adverb phrase first auxiliary Never before was I so eager to reach home. Little did we think we would meet again. Seldom had they tasted such a delicacy.
Following are other examples of this type of construction. The negative adverbs and adverb phrases are printed in bold type, and the subjects of the verbs are underlined.e.g. Seldom was he at a loss for words. Scarcely had we left the house, when it began to rain. Not for many years was the true story known. No sooner did the bell ring than the children ran out of the school.In the first example, the subject he follows was, the Simple Past of the verb to be. In the succeeding examples, the subjects we, story and bell follow the auxiliaries had, was and did, respectively.
See Exercise 9.
In this type of inverted construction, if there is used as an introductory word, there follows the Simple Past or Simple Present of the verb to be, or the first auxiliary.e.g. Seldom were there more than five ducks on the pond. Rarely had there been more swans on the lake than there were that day.In the first example, there follows were, the Simple Past of the verb to be. In the second example, there follows the auxiliary had, of the verb had been.
It should be noted that the expression so ... that can also be used with inverted word order.e.g. So exhausted were we that we fell asleep at the table.In this example, the subject we follows the verb were.
3. Interrogative adverbs
The adverbs how, when, where and why can be used as interrogative adverbs at the beginning of direct questions. The interrogative adverbs in the following direct questions are printed in bold type.e.g. How are you? When is he coming? Where were you? Why did you say that?
As shown in these examples, inverted word order must be used, with the subject following the Simple Past or Simple Present of the verb to be, or the first auxiliary. In the case of the Simple Present and Simple Past of verbs other than the verb to be, the auxiliary to do must be used. In the following examples, the subjects are underlined.e.g. How is your sister? When did you see him? Where is she going? Why has he changed his mind?
In these examples, the subject sister follows the verb is, and the subjects you, she and he follow the auxiliaries did, is and has, respectively.
See Exercise 10.
As well as being used as interrogative adjectives at the beginning of direct questions, how, when, where and why can also be used at the beginning of subordinate clauses. In the following examples, the subordinate clauses are underlined.e.g. Be ready to start when you hear the signal. He camped close to where the brook flows into the lake.In the first example, when you hear the signal is an adverb clause of time. In the second example, where the brook flows into the lake is an adverb clause of location.
In addition to being used at the beginning of adverb clauses, how, when, where and why can also be used at the beginning of indirect questions. In the following examples, the indirect questions are underlined.e.g. I want to know how he did that. I wonder when they will arrive. Please tell me where the school is. I will ask why she left early.
As pointed out previously, inverted word order is not used in indirect questions. Thus, the subject of an indirect question precedes the verb. In the following examples, the subjects are underlined.e.g. We should find out how the information was transmitted. Ask her when she will be here. I wonder where they are. Please find out why he could not come with us.In these examples, the subjects information, she, they and he precede the verbs was transmitted, will be, are and could come.

Rewrite each of the following sentences, placing the adverb of frequency given in brackets in the middle position of the main clause. For example: She is late for work. (rarely) She is rarely late for work.
We visit him on Sundays. (sometimes) We sometimes visit him on Sundays.
I have read that book before. (never) I have never read that book before.
Yes, I do. (usually) Yes, I usually do.
1. I had wanted to see the ocean. (always)2. They do. (frequently)3. She is very friendly. (usually)4. They have the opportunity to travel. (seldom)5. I am at home in the mornings. (generally)6. He has. (always)7. We were given free transportation to the school. (frequently)8. Birds return to the place where they were born to build their nests. (often)9. Albatrosses are seen close to shore. (seldom)10. We would. (never)11. They follow the news. (rarely)12. Maple wood is used to make violins. (sometimes)Answers
2. Rewrite each of the following sentences, placing the adverb of frequency given in brackets in the middle position of the main clause. For example: Have you visited New York? (ever) Have you ever visited New York?
I do not go to the library on the weekend. (always) I do not always go to the library on the weekend.
1. He did not arrive on time. (ever)2. Do you visit Boston? (often)3. Are they surprised at the results? (frequently)4. The children do not follow our instructions. (always)5. Do you wonder what will happen next? (sometimes)6. Did they find the missing information? (ever)7. We do not stay out after dark. (usually)8. The facts are not known. (generally)Answers
3. For each of the following sentences, place the adverbs given in brackets in their most usual positions in the sentence. Place connecting adverbs in the beginning position, place adverbs of frequency in the middle position, and place adverbs of manner and adverbs of time in the end position. Adverbs of manner should precede adverbs of time. For example: They left. (early, usually) They usually left early.
We proceeded. (cautiously, therefore) Therefore, we proceeded cautiously.
We will review our options. (tomorrow, carefully) We will review our options carefully tomorrow.
1. We pick the flowers. (carefully, usually)2. She answers. (correctly, rarely)3. He is wrong. (however, seldom)4. We will attend the concert. (therefore, tonight)5. We found the hotel. (easily, nevertheless)6. They left. (quietly, this morning)7. She wins first prize. (always, furthermore)8. He finished. (late, often)9. We reached the station. (quickly, consequently)10. You speak. (loudly, never)11. We would have gone to the beach. (otherwise, yesterday)12. They worked. (quickly, today)13. I want to analyze the book. (carefully, sometime)14. We arrive. (early, sometimes)Answers
4. The following sentences do not contain verbs of motion. Complete each sentence by placing the adverbs and adverb phrases given in brackets in the end position, in the following order: Adverb of Manner Adverb of Location Adverb of Time Adverb of Purpose
For example: The tickets sold. (at the box office, quickly, this afternoon) The tickets sold quickly at the box office this afternoon.
I bought some film. (to photograph the parade, at the store, yesterday) I bought some film at the store yesterday to photograph the parade.
1. We ate. (at the restaurant, well, yesterday evening)2. They will be. (next month, on business, in France)3. The children whispered. (on Christmas Eve, excitedly, in front of the tree)4. We hung the picture. (on the wall, carefully)5. The birds twittered. (this morning, outside the window, loudly)6. The boys and girls waited. (for the parade to pass by, impatiently)7. We slept. (all afternoon, on the grass, soundly)8. The choir sang. (last week, beautifully, at the competition)9. We watched the skaters. (to determine who might win the competition, avidly, this morning)10. The moon shone. (over the water, long after the sun had set, brilliantly)Answers
5. For each of the following sentences, paying attention to whether or not the sentence contains a verb of motion, place the adverbs and adverb phrases given in brackets in the correct order in the end position of the sentence. For example: He lived. (for six years, happily, in Copenhagen) He lived happily in Copenhagen for six years.
They returned. (from Holland, last week, unexpectedly) They returned from Holland unexpectedly last week.
1. They stood. (at the bus stop, for twenty minutes, patiently)2. We arrived. (here, last night, on foot)3. The young child walked. (by herself, this morning, to school)4. They were waiting. (at seven o'clock, eagerly, outside the fairgrounds)5. She arrived. (in a black limousine, at the hotel)6. Chickadees build their nests. (in dense evergreens, in the early spring, secretively)7. The waves crashed. (against the shore, loudly)8. I walked. (in the rain, to work, yesterday)9. He sat. (until the announcements were finished, on the edge of his chair, expectantly)10. We left. (this morning, home, in a hurry)11. She went. (by bus, downtown, today)12. They talked. (for an hour, animatedly, on the front lawn)Answers
6. For each of the following sentences, fill in the blank with is or are, as appropriate. For example: Here __ one of the computations. Here is one of the computations.
There ___ all of the results. There are all of the results.
1. There _______ his brother and sister.2. Here _______ the news.3. There _______ several of her classmates.4. Here _______ both of the disks.5. There _______ a pair of pliers.6. Here _______ a few chocolates.7. Here _______ a box of eggs.8. There _______ two of the books.9. Here _______ another of the magazines.10. Here _______ some of the answers.ii. There _______ one of his brothers.12. Here _______ the essays.Answers
7. Rewrite the following sentences, replacing the underlined phrases with personal pronouns, and changing the word order as necessary. For example: Over the treetops sailed the kite. Over the treetops it sailed.
Here comes our teacher. Here he comes.
1. Up the stairs dashed the reporter.2. Onto the stage glided the ballerina.3. Here is the butter.4. There go the geese.5. To and fro rode the girl on the horse.6. Here come the children.7. High in the heavens shone the lights of a million stars.8. There goes the train.9. Into the hotel darted the boy.10. Here are your keys.11. Over the grass rolled the ball.12. There is my aunt.Answers
8. The following sentences are incorrect, because each contains a double negative. Each sentence can be corrected by omitting or altering one of the negative expressions. Write two corrected versions for each sentence. For example: We have not got no sugar. We have got no sugar. or We have not got any sugar.
I have never seen nothing like it before. I have seen nothing like it before. or I have never seen anything like it before.
1. He does not need no advice.2. We never go nowhere interesting.3. I did not get none of the answers right.4. She does not know nothing.5. We had not met neither of the boys before.6. They did not do no harm.7. He never speaks to nobody.8. You do not have no reason to behave like that.9. I do not know nothing about it.10. I do not have no time for such things.Answers
9. For each of the following sentences, add the negative expression shown in brackets at the beginning of the sentence, and make any other changes that are necessary. For example: I had reached home when I remembered the message. (hardly) Hardly had I reached home when I remembered the message.
We had the opportunity to do whatever we wanted. (seldom) Seldom did we have the opportunity to do whatever we wanted.
1. We had entered the room when the telephone rang. (scarcely)2. I have seen a more beautiful ballet than that one. (never)3. We realized that a dangerous stretch of road lay ahead of us. (little)4. I have worked as hard as I could. (never before)5. A writer can express his exact feelings in words. (rarely)6. We perceive everything that is around us. (hardly ever)7. One can find a more striking example of erosion than the Grand Canyon. (nowhere)8. They guessed what was about to happen. (little)9. I am entirely satisfied with my situation. (seldom)10. One comprehends a complex situation immediately. (rarely)Answers
10. Paying attention to the correct word order, rewrite the underlined indirect questions as direct questions. For example: I would like to know why you are here. Why are you here?
I wonder how often he comes here. How often does he come here?
Tell me where you have been. Where have you been?
1. I want to know how much money you collected.2. I wonder where they were.3. Tell me why I should attend the meeting.4. I would like to know when he finds time for his hobbies.5. Do you know why she left school?6. I am curious to know how many times you have seen this movie.7. Will you tell me when you completed the assignment?8. He will ask how long it will take.9. Tell me where you are.10. I wonder why she did not reply.11. Find out when the bank opens.12. Can you tell me where she is staying?Answers
11. Paying attention to the correct word order, use the phrases given in brackets to rewrite the following direct questions as indirect questions. For example: Where is the nearest store? (Please find out) Please find out where the nearest store is.
How many boxes of paper did he order? (We need to know) We need to know how many boxes of paper he ordered.
Why has she not finished the assignment? (I will ask her) I will ask her why she has not finished the assignment.
1. Why is the information not here? (Please tell me)2. When will they finish work? (Did you ask)3. Where has she studied? (I wonder)4. How many pounds of cherries did you sell? (Tell us)5. Why was the meeting cancelled? (Will you tell me)6. How long will the trip take? (I wonder)7. How is he? (Did you hear)8. Why do they have difficulty with the work? (I wonder)9. When does she plan to leave? (Ask her)10. How much time do you have? (Please let me know)11. Where is the post office? (I am not sure)12. Where did you buy that book? (Tell me)Answers ANSWERS TO THE EXERCISES
Answers to Exercise 1:1. I had always wanted to see the ocean. 2. They frequently do. 3. She is usually very friendly. 4. They seldom have the opportunity to travel. 5. I am generally at home in the mornings. 6. He always has. 7. We were frequently given free transportation to the school. 8. Birds often return to the place where they were born to build their nests. 9. Albatrosses are seldom seen close to shore. 10. We never would. 11. They rarely follow the news. 12. Maple wood is sometimes used to make violins.
Answers to Exercise 2:1. He did not ever arrive on time. 2. Do you often visit Boston? 3. Are they frequently surprised at the results? 4. The children do not always follow our instructions. 5. Do you sometimes wonder what will happen next? 6. Did they ever find the missing information? 7. We do not usually stay out after dark. 8. The facts are not generally known.
Answers to Exercise 3:1. We usually pick the flowers carefully. 2. She rarely answers correctly. 3. However, he is seldom wrong. 4. Therefore, we will attend the concert tonight. 5. Nevertheless, we found the hotel easily. 6. They left quietly this morning. 7. Furthermore, she always wins first prize. 8. He often finished late. 9. Consequently, we reached the station quickly. 10. You never speak loudly. 11. Otherwise, we would have gone to the beach yesterday. 12. They worked quickly today. 13. I want to analyze the book carefully sometime. 14. We sometimes arrive early.
Answers to Exercise 4:1. We ate well at the restaurant yesterday evening. 2. They will be in France next month on business. 3. The children whispered excitedly in front of the tree on Christmas Eve. 4. We hung the picture carefully on the wall. 5. The birds twittered loudly outside the window this morning. 6. The boys and girls waited impatiently for the parade to pass by. 7. We slept soundly on the grass all afternoon. 8. The choir sang beautifully at the competition last week. 9. We watched the skaters avidly this morning, to determine who might win the competition. 10. The moon shone brilliantly over the water long after the sun had set.
Answers to Exercise 5:1. They stood patiently at the bus stop for twenty minutes. 2. We arrived here on foot last night. 3. The young child walked to school by herself this morning. 4. They were waiting eagerly outside the fairgrounds at seven o'clock. 5. She arrived at the hotel in a black limousine. 6. Chickadees build their nests secretively in dense evergreens in the early spring. 7. The waves crashed loudly against the shore. 8. I walked to work in the rain yesterday. 9. He sat expectantly on the edge of his chair until the announcements were finished. 10. We left home in a hurry this morning. 11. She went downtown by bus today. 12. They talked animatedly on the front lawn for an hour.
Answers to Exercise 6:1. are 2. is 3. are 4. are 5. is 6. are 7. is 8. are 9. is 10. are 11. is 12. are
Answers to Exercise 7:1. Up the stairs he (or she) dashed. 2. Onto the stage she glided. 3. Here it is. 4. There they go. 5. To and fro she rode. 6. Here they come. 7. High in the heavens they shone. 8. There it goes. 9. Into the hotel he darted. 10. Here they are. 11. Over the grass it rolled. 12. There she is.
Answers to Exercise 8:1. He needs no advice. or He does not need any advice. 2. We go nowhere interesting. or We never go anywhere interesting. 3. I got none of the answers right. or I did not get any of the answers right. 4. She knows nothing. or She does not know anything. 5. We had met neither of the boys before. or We had not met either of the boys before. 6. They did no harm. or They did not do any harm. 7. He speaks to nobody. or He never speaks to anybody. 8. You have no reason to behave like that. or You do not have any reason to behave like that. 9. I know nothing about it. or I do not know anything about it. 10. I have no time for such things. or I do not have any time for such things.
Answers to Exercise 9:1. Scarcely had we entered the room when the telephone rang. 2. Never have I seen a more beautiful ballet than that one. 3. Little did we realize that a dangerous stretch of road lay ahead of us. 4. Never before have I worked as hard as I could. 5. Rarely can a writer express his exact feelings in words. 6. Hardly ever do we perceive everything that is around us. 7. Nowhere can one find a more striking example of erosion than the Grand Canyon. 8. Little did they guess what was about to happen. 9. Seldom am I entirely satisfied with my situation. 10. Rarely does one comprehend a complex situation immediately.
Answers to Exercise 10:1. How much money did you collect? 2. Where were they? 3. Why should I attend the meeting? 4. When does he find time for his hobbies? 5. Why did she leave school? 6. How many times have you seen this movie? 7. When did you complete the assignment? 8. How long will it take? 9. Where are you? 10. Why did she not reply? 11. When does the bank open? 12. Where is she staying?
Answers to Exercise 11:1. Please tell me why the information is not here. 2. Did you ask when they will finish work? 3. I wonder where she has studied. 4. Tell us how many pounds of cherries you sold. 5. Will you tell me why the meeting was cancelled? 6. I wonder how long the trip will take. 7. Did you hear how he is? 8. I wonder why they have difficulty with the work. 9. Ask her when she plans to leave. 10. Please let me know how much time you have. 11. I am not sure where the post office is. 12. Tell me where you bought that book.
Grammar Exercises
Unscramble these sentences.
Example: get always up you 7.00 at. - You always get up at 7.00.
1. sometimes at We restaurant a eat.
2. happy always Shane is.
3. doesn't always She take a taxi.
4. often listens music Tom to.
5. is Paul never late.
6. Sally to sometimes gym goes the.
7. Dad cook sometimes dinner.
8. usually well do I math tests in.
9. looks William good always.
10. you do often study English?
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1. We sometimes eat at a restaurant.2. Shane is always happy.3. She doesn't always take a taxi.4. Tom often listens to music.5. Paul is never late.6. Sally sometimes goes to the gym.7. Dad sometimes cooks dinner.8. I usually do well in math tests.9. William always looks good.10. Do you often study English?

3 comentários:

Lucas Wetten disse...

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Lucas

Professor de Português disse...

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Professor de Português disse...

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