Olá pessoal! Bom, todo mundo já conhece o nosso português "internetês", usado largamente na internet e em mensagens rápidas de celular.
No caso do português, hoje não é só mais uma moda jovem. Pessoas de todas as idades estão optando por essa linguagem escrita 'semi-criptografada'.
Mas na Língua Inglesa isso também ocorre. E é impossível alguém conseguir se achar e conversar numa Chat Room se não souber algumas palavras e expressões.
Eles levam muito 'ao pé da letra' pronúncia das letras, e isso acaba simplificando a escrita d algumas palabras como:
YOU ---> u ou ya
YOUR ---> ur
HONEY ---> huni
Há também a simplificação de certas expressões idiomáticas:
GOT TO GO ---> g2g
WHAT HAVE BEEN UP TO YOU? ---> wot hav bin up 2 u?
Para expressar gargalhadas, em português usamos "hahaha" ou "hauhauhuhauauh". Já no inglês, é usado a abreviação lol ou LOL, que siginifica "Lots of Laughts".
Mas estes foram só exemplos de como é adaptada a língua inglesa para o uso prático e rápido em chats na internet.
BRB = be right back
WB = welcome back
2 = to
U = you
R = are
u = you
ya = you
2 = to
hav = have
bin = been
yep = yes
yea = yes
nope = no
nops = no
thnx = thank you
thanx = thank you
n = and
gd = good
wot = what
wen = when
y = why
coz = because
bout = about
gr8 = great
m8 = mate, friend
der = there
dat = that
ur = you're
kewl = cool
r = are
no = know
bf = boyfriend
gf = girlfriend
E algumas expressões e frases feitas:
OMG = Oh my God!
sup = Whats up!
d.w. = Don't worry!
g2g = Got to go.
dunno = I don't know.
asl = age/sex/location?
wbu? = What about you?
cya = See you!
I hope you enjoy it, dudes!
See ya! hugs!
eu pensei q lol fosse laughing out loud
lots of laughs?
Michele = BTW = By the way
WTF = What the *UCK
2U2 = To you too
luv = love
L8R = later
Just a few I could think of, off the top of my head.
Antigamente, os professores sugeriam que seus alunos evitassem ler as legendas ao assistir a um filme ou programa em língua estrangeira. Hoje sabe-se que as legendas ajudam (e muito) a ampliar o vocabuláio dos alunos, e por isso deve-se até encorajá-los a usá-las como ferramenta de aprendizado.
1 - Selecione um programa legendado que possa ser de interesse dos alunos ou que esteja dentro do assunto que está sendo trabalhado em aula.
2 - Escolha um trecho de não mais que cinco minutos de duração. Assista atentamente o trecho escolhido e selecione palavras ou expressões da legenda que pode-se ouvir com clareza na língua estrangeira.
3 - Escreva cada palavra em um cartão. Você deverá ter, preferencialmente, uma palavra para cada aluno, mas em turmas grandes você poderá dar um cartão para cada dupla de alunos.
4 - Em aula, explique que a tarefa de cada um será descobrir como foi dita, na LE, a palavra escrita no seu cartão. A grafia correta, nesse estágio, não é importante. Os alunos deverão anotar simplesmente o que conseguiram entender.
5- Depois de apresentado o segmento em vídeo, divida o quadro em duas colunas e peça para cada um dizer a palavra/expressão que havia procurado e o seu equivalente na LE. As palavras que os alunos "acharam" devem ser escritas na coluna da esquerda; se alguém não conseguiu ouvir a sua palavra, ela deverá ser escrita na coluna da direita (em português).
Numa segunda apresentação do segmento, será tarefa de toda a turma descobrir o equivalente em inglês para as palavras da coluna da direita, ou seja, para palavras que não haviam sido descobertas previamente. Já que várias cabeças pensam melhor do que uma, vários ouvidos certamente funcionam melhor do que um par. Se os termos escolhidos não forem demasiadamente difíceis, normalmente não é necessária uma terceira apresentação do vídeo.
A melhor maneira de revisar conteúdos com alunos do Ensino Fundamental é, na minha opinião, bolar uma gincana em que cada tarefa aborda um item diferente do conteúdo programático. Os alunos se empenham tanto em cumprir o maior número possível de tarefas que deixam de encarar a revisão como "exercícios".
Na última gincana que fiz, aproveitei para praticar as preposições de lugar (em inglês, in, on, under, between, next to, in front of). Eu escondia as tarefas e fazia cartões com a sua localização. Por exemplo: A tarefa um está sobre a mesa do professor, embaixo do livro de Matemática. Ou seja: para achar a tarefa era preciso cumprir uma tarefa preliminar, que era a de decifrar a frase que dizia onde ela estava escondida.
A princípio, pensei em deixar os cartões todos sobre uma mesa (cerca de 10), e dizer aos grupos que trabalhassem sempre em uma tarefa de cada vez: só quando uma tarrefa fosse concluída poderiam voltar à mesa e pegar a dica sobre a localização da tarefa seguinte.
Logo constatei uma desvantagem: se um grupo pegasse a tarefa 1, por exemplo, o tópico que essa tarefa revisava só seria trabalhado por aquele grupo, e as outras equipes deixariam de revisá-lo. Logo pensei numa alternativa: depois de resolver a tarefa, e antes de pegar a seguinte, cada grupo precisaria escondê-la em outro lugar, e colocar um novo cartão sobre a mesa informando ao grupo seguinte sobre a sua nova localização. Essa pista deveria ser assinada, ou seja, se fosse deliberadamente falsa, os pontos ganhos pelo grupo com aquela tarefa seriam revertidos para o grupo prejudicado. Assim, todos se empenharam em ser claros e absolutamente precisos, o que proporcionou a eles praticarem muitas vezes as preposiçõe
Bolando" atividades para a festa de Halloween de 2006, tive a idéia de escrever uma mensagem invertida. O sucesso foi tanto, que vou começar a usar a mesma técnica em brincadeiras com os alunos ao longo do ano também. Funciona melhor se você tiver um scanner, porque não é nada fácil escrever à mão mensagens deste tipo.
1. Escreva um texto recheado de frases imperativas em fonte de tamanho grande, como a Times New Roman 26. O texto que eu escrevi dizia o seguinte:
Go to the bathroom on the 2nd floor.
Look in the cabinet on the right.
There is a book there.
Open the book.
Find the sentence that says in English: "Eu quero ir para casa".
Bring the book to your room.
Show the sentence to your teacher.
2. Digitalize o texto no scaner. Entre as opções de edição da foto, escolha "inverter horizontalmente". Voilá! Você terá uma mensagem invertida perfeita! Faça um teste: vá até o espelho mais próximo e verá que na imagem refletida o texto pode ser lido perfeitamente.
2. Em turmas grandes, o ideal é que se divida a turma em equipes, dando uma mensagem invertida diferente para cada grupo. Vira uma caça ao tesouro: quem primeiro consegue decifrar a mensagem, primeiro consegue realizar a tarefa e, conseqüentemente, ganha o jogo.
3.Você tem duas opções: dar aos alunos a dica de ler a mensagem no espelho ou deixar que eles descubram sozinhos o macete. Vale avisar: a maioria não descobre e quase quebra a cabeça tentando ler o texto da maneira como se encontra no papel.
4. Quando eles conseguirem, de uma maneira ou de outra, decifrar a frase, sairão correndo em busca do seu "tesouro". Se o lugar estipulado estiver fora da sala de aula, não esqueça de avisar os funcionários da escola sobre a atividade, para que os alunos não tenham de perder tempo dando explicações!
Letras de Musica: Usando música com iniciantes.
A pouca proficiência na língua é um dos maiores empecilhos para o uso de letras de música com alunos iniciantes. No entanto, tenho aplicado com sucesso algumas estratégias que contornam um pouco esse problema.
Em primeiro lugar, acho importante que os alunos saibam o que estão cantando, independentemente do grau de dificuldade da letra. Procuro também partir do vocabulário que eles já dominam, levando-os a fazerem associações que lhes permitam inferir o significado de outras palavras, ampliando, assim, o seu vocabulário.
Apesar do exemplo abaixo ser em inglês, professores de outros idiomas podem usar atividades semelhantes para trabalhar com música com seus alunos.
1) A técnica da correspondência de versos
A letra é apresentada em duas versões: na língua original (em versos numerados) e na língua alvo (com versos seguidos de parênteses). A tarefa dos alunos será a de fazer a correspondência dos versos nas duas línguas, a partir de "pistas" que eles buscarão no próprio texto: palavras que eles já conhecem e termos cognatos (semelhantes nas duas línguas).
You're beautiful (Part I)
( ) My life is brilliant. (2x)
( ) My love is pure.
( ) I saw an angel.
( ) Of that I'm sure.
( ) She smiled at me on the subway.
( ) She was with another man.
( ) But I won't lose no sleep on that,
( ) 'Cause I've got a plan.
( ) You're beautiful. You're beautiful.
( ) You're beautiful, it's true.
( ) I saw your face in a crowded place,
( ) And I don't know what to do,
( ) 'Cause I'll never be with you.
1. Eu vi seu rosto num lugar cheio de gente
2. Você é bonita, é verdade.
3. Meu amor é puro.
4. E eu não sei o que fazer
5. Minha vida é ótima.
6. Você é bonita. Você é bonita.
7. Porque eu nunca estarei com você.
8. Eu vi um anjo.
9. Porque eu tenho um plano.
10. Ela estava com outro homem.
11. Disso eu tenho certeza.
12. Mas eu não vou perder o sono por isso
13. Ela sorriu pra mim no metrô.
2) A técnica da tradução "assistida"
Nesse tipo de atividade, eu traduzo os versos, mas deixo lacunas na letra original. Os alunos vão completar, a partir da tradução, as palavras que estão faltando. Depois, ao ouvir a música, eles irão confirmar se os seus palpites estavam corretos.
Como o refrão já havia sido trabalhado na Parte I, nessa segunda parte ele aparece sem a tradução.
You are beautiful (Part II)
Yeah, _______ caught my eye, Sim, ela chamou a minha atenção
As ________we walked on by. Quando nós passamos (um pelo outro)
She could see from my _________ that I was, Ela pode ver pela minha cara que eu estava
Flying high, Voando alto
And I don't think that I'll _________ her again, E eu acho que não vou vê-la de novo
But we shared a _____________ that will last till the __________. Mas nós compartilhamos um momento que vai durar até o fim.
You're beautiful. You're beautiful
You're beautiful, it's true.
I saw your face in a crowded place,
And I don't know what to do,
'Cause I'll never be with you.
You're beautiful. You're beautiful. You're beautiful, it's true.
There must be an ___________ with a ___________ on her ___________, Deve haver um anjo com um sorriso no rosto
When she thought up that I should be _________ you. Quando pensou que eu deveria estar com você.
But it's ___________ to face the truth, Mas é hora de encarar a verdade,
I will ___________ be with you. Eu nunca estarei/ficarei com você.
3- A técnica da ênfase gramatical
Nesse caso, eu destaco na letra os aspectos gramaticais que eu estou trabalhando com os alunos no momento (no caso, o passado simples). Eu peço aos alunos que completem as lacunas com o passado dos verbos indicados, e depois toco o CD para que eles confiram se estavam certos. O significado da letra é trabalhado posteriormente, com a ajuda do grupo.
Complete the lyrics with the past tense of the verbs in parenthesis
My life is brilliant. My love is pure.
I saw an angel. Of that I'm sure.
She ___________at me on the subway. (smile)
She ______ with another man. (be)
But I won't lose no sleep on that, 'Cause I've got a plan.
You're beautiful. You're beautiful. You're beautiful, it's true.
I ________ your face in a crowded place, (see)
And I don't know what to do, 'Cause I'll never be with you.
Yeah, she ____________my eye, (catch)
As we ____________ on by. (walk)
She _____________see from my face that I was flying high (can)
And I don't think that I'll see her again,
But we __________a moment that will last till the end. (share)
You're beautiful. You're beautiful. You're beautiful, it's true.
I saw your face in a crowded place, And I don't know what to do,
'Cause I'll never be with you.
You're beautiful. You're beautiful. You're beautiful, it's true.
There must be an angel with a smile on her face,
When she ___________ up that I should be with you. (think)
But it's time to face the truth, I will never be with you.
1) What does the boy want to do? _____________________________________
2) How much money does he have? ___________________________________
3) How much money does he need? ___________________________________
Scene 2: In what order are these sentences said?
( ) I'm not talking to you. ( ) I don't drink, seriously.
( ) What about my bike? ( ) He's perfectly all right.
( ) Give this to your Dad and he'll know what to do with it.
Scene 3: (* With subtitles)
1) What's the expression for cheque em branco? _________________________________
2) What does "cash" mean? __________________________________________________
Scenes 4/5: Complete the dialogues as you hear them on the film:
Policeman: Hey, sonny, cashing a ____________ ____________ today?
Boy: Sort of.
Cashier: Over here, __________ ___________! Well?
Boy: I'd like to ________ _________ __________, please.
Cashier: Oh, a ______________!
Boy: No, mam.
Cashier: Ok, so we'd better _________ ___________ to Mr. Bikman.
Mr. Bikman: I suppose you want _________ ______________
Boy: Actually, _______ ___________
Mr. Bikman: It's cute. Put your backpack on my desk, please.
Scene 6: Correct these statements according to what you understand from this scene:
1) The boy wants to buy a new car. ____________________________________________
2) He offers US$ 200.000 ___________________________________________________
3) He uses the name Microsoft to buy it. ________________________________________
Scene 7: ANY SUGGESTIONS???
Scene 8: What word is NOT said in this scene?
Kid - childhood - fun - job - watch - money - guy
Scene 9: (* With subtitles) How do they say:
1) Você me assustou! __________________ 2) Que carro legal! _________________
3) Você quer carona? ___________________ 4) Até amanhã! ____________________
Scene 10: ANY SUGGESTIONS?
Guia do Professor e dos Pais
English is Great
UNIT 1 - AROUND THE WORLD
Note:Here is some more information about the British sailor James Cook (page 6 of the textbook).
James Cook was born on October 27, 1728 in Marton, (near modern Middlesborough), Yorkshire, Britain. He commanded three voyages of discovery for Great Britain, and sailed around the world twice. Captain Cook's voyages lead to the establishment of colonies throughout the Pacific by several European countries. He is considered one of the world's greatest explorers. Cook was an apprentice to a shipping company at age 18, and joined the British Navy at 27 in 1755. In 1768, the Navy appointed him leader of a scientific expedition to Tahiti to observe a solar eclipse by Venus. He also had secret orders to seek a southern continent geographers long believed kept the world in balance. He set out on his first voyage round the world in the ship Endeavour. The trip to Tahiti was successful. The search for the southern continent ("Terres Australes" or lands in the south) was not. In October of 1769 Cook was the first European to visit New Zealand. On August 22, 1770, Cook claimed for Great Britain the eastern coast of New Holland, as Australia was known by the Dutch at that time. He claimed the part of New Holland the Dutch had not technically mapped. The name "Australia" was not used until the early 1800s. During his return trip to England in 1771, Cook was the first ship commander to prevent the outbreak of scurvy, by serving his crew fruit and sauerkraut to prevent the disease. On Cook's second journey he sailed farther south than any other European. He circled Antarctica in his famous ship Resolution, but the ice surrounding the continent prevented the sighting of land. The existence of the Antarctica remained unproved until 1840. He returned to England in 1775 and was promoted to Captain. In July of 1776 Cook set sail on his third voyage, again in Resolution. His mission was to look for a possible northern sea route between Europe and Asia. In 1778 he became the first know European to reach the Hawaiian Islands. Later in 1778 Cook sailed up the northwest coast of North America, and was the first European to land on Vancouver Island in British Columbia. He continued up the coast through the Bering strait, and entered the Arctic Ocean. Great walls of ice blocked the expedition, so Cook headed back for the Hawaiian Islands. On February 14, 1779 Cook was stabbed to death by Hawaiian natives while investigating a theft of a boat by an islander. The expedition arrived back in England in October of 1780.
The following activities are mainly for group work, therefore they can be adapted to fit individual needs.
LEAD IN or WARM UP ACTIVITY 1 - Festivals around the world
Note: the festivals below refer to exercise 3, page 5 of the textbook.
Divide your class in groups of four or five students. Give one text about a festival to each group. Shorten the text if necessary. Help with vocabulary! Get each group to make 2 questions about their text using mainly, simple past and present perfect. Now ask each group to give their text and questions to another group, which will make two more questions for the same text. Do it one more time, till you have about 6 questions for each text. The group, which did not make questions about a text, must now answer all questions.
All groups must have read all texts. Collect the questions and answers from each group and prepare a festival quiz for all students.
If you think the students will have problems in making questions, choose one of the texts and first make a group work, eliciting questions from all students (plus your own examples).
The Sapporo Snow Festival, one of Japan's largest winter events, attracts a growing number of visitors from Japan and abroad every year.
Every winter, about two million people come to Sapporo to see the hundreds of beautiful snow statues and ice sculptures which line Odori Park,the grounds at the Self-Defense Force base in Makomanai, and the main street in Susukino.
For seven days in February,these statues and sculptures(both large and small) turn Sapporo into a winter dreamland of crystal-like ice and white snow.
The Snow Festival began in 1950, when local high school students built six snow statues in Odori Park. in 1955, the Self-Defense Force joined in and built the very first massive snow sculpture, for which the Snow Festival has become famous for now. The Festival has grown from these humble beginnings to become one of the biggest and most well known of Hokkaido's winter events.
The Snow Festival is considered to be a festival of international-caliber.
SAINT PATRICK’S DAY
Saint Patrick's Day is celebrated each year on March 17th. The festive holiday has everyone wearing green (so they don't get pinched) and chatting of four leaf clovers, shamrocks, lucky leprechauns, and kissing some big rock called a blarney stone. Does it all sound a bit strange? It did to me too but after a bit of research it all made sense. Here's what I found out.
Did you know that Saint Patrick's name at birth was Maewyn Succat? He was born somewhere near the end of the fourth century and took on the name Patrick or Patricus, after he became a priest, much later in his life. At the age of sixteen Maewyn Succat was kidnapped from his native land of Britain, by a band pirates, and sold into slavery in Ireland. Maewyn worked as a shepherd and turned to religion for solace. After six long years of slavery he escaped to the northern coast of Gaul.
In Gaul, Maewyn became Patrick (a more christian name) and studied in the monastery under St. Germain, bishop of Auxerre for twelve years. He came to believe that it was his calling to convert the pagans of Ireland to Christianity. St. Palladius was appointed to go to Ireland first but transferred to Scotland two years later opening up the door for Patrick. Patrick was about sixty years old when he arrived in Ireland and it is said that he had a winning personality that helped him win converts. He used the shamrock, which resembles a three-leafed clover, to help explain the concept of the Trinity (father, son, holy spirit).
Patrick was arrested several times, but escaped each time. He traveled throughout Ireland, establishing monasteries and setting up schools and churches to aid in converting the Irish country to Christianity. Legend has it that Saint Patrick drove all the snakes out of Ireland. Evidently, they all went into the sea and drowned. The snake is a pagan symbol and perhaps this is a figurative tale explaining that he drove paganism out of Ireland.
Patrick's mission in Ireland lasted for thirty years. He then retired to County Down and died on March 17 in 461 AD. That day has been commemorated as St. Patrick's Day ever since. The first year St. Patrick's Day was celebrated in this country was 1737 in Boston, Massachusetts. As the saying goes, on this day "everybody is Irish!" Over 100 U.S. cities now hold Saint Patrick's Day parades.
St. Patrick used the shamrock leaf to symbolize the Trinity, and today many people wear a shamrock to commemorate Saint Patrick's Day.
So what's all this talk of kissing the Blarney Stone?
Blarney Castle is located in County Cork, Ireland. Built in 1446 by Cormac Laidhim McCarthy (Lord of Muskerry) the Blarney stone is located in the southern tower wall between the main castle wall and the parapet. In order to kiss the stone one has to lie on their back and bend backward (and downward), holding iron bars for support. It is said that the Blarney stone has magical properties. As legend has it anold woman cast a spell on the stone to reward a king who had saved her from drowning. Kissing the stone gave the king the ability to speak sweetly and convincingly.
Just what does a Leprechaun look like and why are they so special? A Leprechaun (Irish fairy) looks like a little old man. He's about 2 feet tall and dresses like a shoemaker with a cocked hat and leather apron. A Leprechaun's personality is described as aloof and unfriendly. They live alone and pass the time by making shoes. They're special because they also possess a hidden pot of gold.
If you listen closely for the sound of their hammer you might be able to capture one. If you do you can force him (with the threat of bodily violence) to reveal where he's hidden his treasure. Be careful! Do not take your eyes off him for if you do he will surely vanish and your hopes of finding his treasure will vanish with him.
So why do we all wear green?
Probably because you'll be pinched if you don't! School children started this tradition. Green is also the color of spring, the shamrock and is connected with hope and nature.
The luck of the Irish
Want to be lucky this St. Patrick's Day? Follow this advice:
1. Find a four-leaf clover. 2. Wear green (so you don't get pinched). 3. Kiss the blarney stone. 4. Catch a Leprechaun if you can.
In honor of the festivities we leave you with this Irish blessing: May your blessings outnumber the shamrocks that grow and may trouble avoid you wherever you go!
Contributed by Alecia Dixon
History of Carnival in Brazil
The origins of carnival date back to the ancient Greek spring festival in honor of Dionysus, the god of wine. The Romans adopted the celebration with Bacchanalia (feasts in honor of Bacchus, the Roman equivalent to Dionysus), and Saturnalia, where slaves and their masters would exchange clothes in a day of drunken revelry. Saturnalia was later modified by the Roman Catholic Church into a festival leading up Ash Wednesday. It quickly evolved into a massive celebration of indulgences - one last gasp of music, food, alcohol, and sex before Lent - before the 40 days of personal reflection, abstinence, and fasting until Easter (not exactly what the Church probably had in mind). 40 days of purging sins, preceded by a week filled with virtually every known sin. The word itself comes from Latin, "Carne Vale" or "Farewell to the Flesh".
Brazil - Rio de Janeiro
Rio's lavish carnival is one of the world's most famous. Scores of spectacular floats surrounded by thousands and thousands of dancers, singers, and drummers parade through the enormous Sambódromo Stadium dressed in elaborate costumes (or, quite often, with absolutely no costume.) It is an epic event televised around the world. The origin of Brazil's carnival goes back to a Portuguese pre-lent festivity called "entrudo", a chaotic event where participants threw mud, water, and food at each other in a street event that often led to riots (an event quite similar to today's Andean carnival - see Venezuelan section of this booklet). Rio's first masquerade carnival ball (set to polkas and waltzes) was in 1840. Carnival street parades followed a decade later with horse drawn floats and military bands. The sound closely associated with the Brazilian carnival, the samba, wasn't part of carnival until 1917. The samba is a mix of Angolan samba, European polka, African batuques, with touches of Cuban habanera and other styles. What we now know as samba is a result of the arrival of black Brazilians (primarily from Bahia) to the impoverished slums or favelas surrounding Rio following the abolition of slavery in Brazil in 1888.
Today the carnival is organized by the escolas de samba (samba schools). They first appeared in 1928. Much more than musical groups, they are in fact, neighborhood associations that provide a variety of community needs (such as educational and health care resources) in a country with grinding poverty and no social safety net.
Brazil - Salvador da Bahia
Salvador da Bahia was Brazil's first center of government (from 1549 to 1763), and remains its musical capital. For centuries, Bahia was home of the Portuguese sugar industry and slave trade. As a result, today Salvador is the largest center of African culture in the Americas. Amidst the colonial architecture and cobblestone streets, there is an unmistakeable beat of Bahian drumming. You can hear it in the stereo speakers and boomboxes blasting the latest Axê pop music. It becomes overwhelming when the large percussion ensembles (with literally hundreds of drummers) called "blocos Afros" take to the streets for carnival. It was a movement launched a half century ago by the group, Filhos de Gandhi (Sons of Gandhi). Today, there are countless blocos Afros that have taken on a new mission as part of the "negritude" movement to re-establish Black Pride. Olodum, Ara Ketu, Ilê Aiyé, Timbalada and the all women's drumming mega-group Dida all electrify Salvador every February during carnival. Olodum's Billy Arquimimo explains, "We started Olodum 20 years ago because at that time, black people used to be ashamed of their skin. We thought it was necessary to do something to re-establish Black Pride, and to redevelop African culture here in Bahia."
Like Rio, the city of Salvador is famous for its carnival. For both cities, it is an enormous festival leading up to Lent. That is where the similarities end. Rio is famous for its Samba schools, elaborate costumes (or at times no costumes), and a huge parade held at the Sambódromo Stadium. Salvador is Brazil's street carnival. It lasts for weeks. The music begins daily as early as noon and runs until 7 or 8 the next morning.
Bahian superstar Carlinhos Brown explains, "We play, not for money, but to celebrate happiness. Our carnival is a street carnival. It is for everyone, not just for those with money." In addition to the Blocos Afros, artists like Carlinhos Brown and Daniela Mercury perform on huge trucks, packed with loudspeakers called "trio electricos". These are the big tractor-trailer trucks packed with huge speakers. The tradition began in 1950 when two Bahian musicians, Dodo and Osmar, performed with their electric trio aboard a 1929 Ford pickup truck.. Even though there are regularly 20-40 bandmembers atop 18 wheeler mega-trucks today, the name "trio electrico" still sticks. Bahia's carnival is perhaps the world's largest public festivity, attracting crowds of three million that dance through the night in Salvador's historic colonial streets.
America is a melting pot of cultures from all over the world. Because we are a nation of people from many different cultures, our holidays tend to blend bits and pieces from different cultures into one American celebration. Halloween is one of the best examples of a holiday with a rich tradition of "blending."
October 31. Halloween. Costumes and Jack O'Lanterns. Trick or Treat and bonfires. We generally see it as a harmless children's celebration. And it is. Now. The history of Halloween, however, dates back before Christianity and involves death and evil spirits and fears of all sorts.
Let's start with the date, October 31. When mankind first started to settle down into villages, there were two sources of food. You farmed and you raised cattle. Cattle were easy. On May first, you drove the cattle out into your field. On November first, you brought them back into the barn for the winter. Your entire year was two seasons - growing season and winter. Life and Death. Beltane and Samhain. Since November first was the start of the season of death, when food grew scarce and the plants all died, it was also the night to honor the Lord of the Dead, Anwinn. The belief was that spirits of those who had died during that year also gathered that night, driven out of the bare woods and empty fields. The spirits returned to their homes and needed the help of their kin to cross over to the land of the dead. Relatives would hollow out turnips and gourds and use them to carry the spirits to the proper location.
Not just good spirits were loose on Samhain - evil spirits, witches and goblins also roamed the earth. To protect your relative's spirit, you'd paint a scary face on the gourd to chase the evil spirits away. And to play it safe, you'd also disguise yourself by painting your face with hideous paints and donning a wild costume.
This just left the problem of the faeries. Faeries also ran free on the Eve of Samhain. Faeries weren't evil, they weren't good. They were faeries. They liked rewarding good deeds and did not like to be crossed. And on Samhain, the faeries would disguise themselves as beggars and go door to door asking for handouts. Those who gave them food were rewarded. Those who slammed the door tended to experience some unpleasantness.
Bonfires were very popular part of the ceremony in the Celtic countries. In Ireland, the fires were all allowed to go out. A large bonfire was lit in the center of town and sacrifices were thrown in. From this one central bonfire in each town, all the hearths and fireplaces were re lit. The same ceremony took place in Scotland, but the Scots also believed that you could tell the future by staring into the bonfire.
In 43 AD, the Roman Empire conquered the Celts and Celts and Romans found themselves living in the same villages. The Celtic festival of Samhain was celebrated at the same time as Pomona, a Roman celebration of the harvest. As the two cultures lived together, their cultures began to merge and suddenly apples and harvests became part of the celebration.
Readers will notice that until now we haven't actually said the word Halloween. This is because it still didn't exist. Over the next 500 years, the Catholic Church grew in power until, under Pope Gregory, it had converted most of Europe and the British Islands to Christianity. Pope Gregory's successor, Pope Boniface 4th, desperately wanted to eliminate pagan ceremonies. Pope Boniface felt that as long as the old festivals were still celebrated, the church's control wasn't complete. He also knew that if he banned the festivals, he'd have a full blown riot on his hands. So he decided to replace the old festival with a new festival and the church created All Saints' Day, a holy day to honor all the saints.
The problem with All Saints' Day was it was a holy day, not a festival. The people simply celebrated both of them. Two hundred years later the church had still not succeeded in getting rid of the pagan holiday. Pope Gregory the 3rd, however, had a new idea. He changed the rules so that All Saints' day always fell on the exact day as Samhain. And to celebrate All Saints' Day, young men were to go door to door begging for food for the town poor. Villagers were allowed to dress up in costume to represent a saint. Now, instead of dressing up to chase away evil spirits, you dressed up to honor the saints.
For the next 700 years, the Church felt it had won the battle because the Celts celebrated All Saints' Day. The Celts, on the other hand, thought they had won because they still had their holiday with the original ceremonies. Neither realized that Samhain and All Saints' Day were blurring into one holiday. By the 1500's, you couldn't separate the two anymore. Of course, by this time, no one called it All Saints' Day. Now it was All Hallows' Day. The night before All Hallows' Day was of course, All Hallows' Evening, or in the slang of the villagers, Hallow Evening or simply Halloween.
This may have been the end of it except for one significant development. On Halloween, 1517, Martin Luthor began trying to reform the Catholic Church. His reformation ended up as the Protestant Church, the followers of which didn't believe in saints. No saints meant no All Hallows' Day. No All Hallows' Day meant no Halloween. The Celts have never given up a party without a fight, so the Halloween festivities were moved to November 5 - Guy Fawkes Day. Guy Fawkes was a minor player in a Catholic plot to blow up the English Parliament, which was Protestant. So, although technically, the celebration was to commemorate the failure of the plot, it was Halloween. Bonfires were lit across the country. People made lanterns from carved out turnips and children went begging for money.
Meanwhile, in the new world, the settlers were all Protestant and Halloween was technically a Catholic holiday. The original colonists in this country found ANY celebration immoral, never mind a Catholic one. In fact, celebrating Christmas in the Massachusetts colony was illegal, punishable by banishment or death.
After the American Revolution, Halloween still never really caught on in America. Most of the country was farmland, and the people too far spread out to share different celebrations from Europe. Any chance to get together was looked forward to - barn raisings, quilting bees, taffy pulls. Eventually, a fall holiday called the Autumn Play Party developed. People would gather and tell ghost stories, dance and sing and feast and light bonfires. The children would stage a school pageant where they paraded in costumes. Sound familiar?
The Autumn Play Parties lasted until the Industrial revolution. After that, the majority of Americans lived in cities and had no need for such get togethers. By the end of the Civil War, only Episcopalians and Catholics celebrated All Saints' Day and Halloween, and the two religions combined made up less than 5% of the population. Concerned about letting a part of their heritage fade away, the the two religions began an aggressive campaign to put those two holidays on all public calendars. The first year All Saints' Day and Halloween showed up on the calendars, the newspapers and magazines made a big deal about it. Suddenly, everyone knew about Halloween and began celebrating it by lighting bonfires and having masquerade parties.
In the late 1800's, nearly 7.4 million immigrants came to America, bringing their European customs with them. Seven hundred thousand Irish Catholics came over during the seven-year potato famine alone. These immigrants may have brought their customs with them, but once they saw how plentiful pumpkins were in the New World, it didn't take them long to start hollowing out jack O'lanterns instead of turnips.
In 1921, Anoka, Minnesota celebrated the first official city wide observation of Halloween with a pumpkin bowl, a costumed square dance and two parades. After that, it didn't take Halloween long to go nationwide. New York started celebrating in 1923 and LA in 1925. By then, not only had Jack O'Lanterns replaced the hollowed out turnips, but the disguised fairies begging door to door had become trick or treat. Bonfires remained popular, but not for relighting fires and telling the future.
So if it appears on October 31 that the wind sounds a little too mournful as it whistles through the skeletal fingers of the bare trees, it's only your imagination. And if the nip in the air seems to bear the chilling touch of the grave on it, it's only fall foreshadowing the arrival of winter. It has nothing to do with the ghosts and goblins that once called this night their own. And as you peer out into the stygian blackness of this night, if something should rustle through the dead leaves, just remember that the faeries dance no more in the realms of man. - It is only Halloween.
BOI BUMBÁ FESTIVAL
The Boi-Bumbá Festival
Originating in Maranhão known as Bumba-Meu-Boi, the celebration named Boi-Bumbá took on specific characteristics in the State of Amazonas, due to miscegenation with indigenous aspects. becoming an interesting tourist attraction. In the Parintins Island, 420 kilometers up the Solimoes River from Manaus, the largest folklore manifestation of Amazon Region takes place. It is promoted by the Government of the State of Amazonas through the State Secretariat for Culture and Tourism – SECTUR. During the event the city of Parintins is divided into two blocks: one blue and the other red - the colors of the two ritual bulls Caprichoso and Garantido. Held on June 28, 29 and 30, the island is flooded by a multitude of people from all parts of Brazil, and other countries of the world. The highlight in the presentations is the revival of the death of the bull, part of the legend that tells the story of Mãe Catirina, who during her pregnancy craved for eating ox tongue. Pai Francisco, her husband, sacrifices the bull from the farm where he was employed to satisfy his wife´s desire. The ranch owner discovers everything and decides to capture Francisco with the help of his cowboys, but the Indians help hide Pai Francisco from the cowboys. The local priest and the doctor try to resuscitate the bull, to no avail. The local Indian shaman uses his supernatural powers and potions to revive the bull. With the bull alive again, the party is restarted, in a frenzied and irresistible rhythm.
LEAD IN or WARM UP ACTIVITY 2 – Have you ever tried it?
Write on the board some words related to the festivals mentioned in activity 1. You can think of other festivals too. Look at the examples below.
snow statues and ice sculptures see (seen)
Sapporo – Japan be (been)
big rock called a blarney stone kiss (kissed)
green wear (worn)
Shamrock find (found)
four leaf clovers play (played)
Carnival dance (danced)
elaborate costumes make (made)
parades go (gone)
samba read (read)
the revival of the death of the bull
the story of Mãe Catirina
Now make a list of verbs that can be used with the words given. Encourage the students to ask as many questions as possible. They can work in pairs or in groups. First, raise some questions with the whole class.
‘Have you ever seen snow statues and ice sculptures?’
‘Have you ever been to Japan?’
‘Have you ever worn green at Saint Patrick’s day?
‘Has anyone in your family ever gone trick-or-treating?’
LEAD IN or WARM UP ACTIVITY 3 – More about Australia
Challenge your students! Prize the ones with the highest scores. Here’s an Australian quiz.
1. When is Australia Day? (26 Jan)
2. Which is the Capital of Australia? (Canberra)
3. Australia has got how many time Zones? (three)
Three Time Zones
Two Time Zones
Four Time Zones
Five Time Zones
3.Which is the most recognizable Australian mammal? (kangaroo)
5. Australia's Melbourne Cricket ground is the - (the biggest in the world)
Biggest in the world
2nd biggest in the world
4th biggest in the world
3rd biggest in the world
.Which is Australia's most identifiable symbol? (Sydney Opera House)
Captain Cook Memorial Water Jet
Sydney Opera House
7. Which is Australia's national gemstone? (opal)
8. What is the currency of Australia? (Australian dollar)
9. Which is Australia's greatest river? (Murray)
10. Australia's official head of state is_ ? (Queen Elizabeth II of England)
Queen Elizabeth II of England
President of Australia
Prime Minister of Australia
President of Australia
OUTDOOR PROJECT - Famous destinations
Pair work or group work: ask your students to prepare a quiz (like the one about Australia) about any famous destination around the world. The students should bring the quiz to the teacher who must then select about three or four questions from each quiz and prepare a new quiz about various destinations. The group that answers most questions correctly about the new quiz should get a prize from the teacher.
Here’s a list of some sites the students can visit to prepare their quiz.
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